Are You a Literary Agent?
Before I convince you to help me sell my book, I will start by selling you about me as a writer. I have the desire, stamina, and ability to write this book. Writing is in my DNA. My grandfather, Charles Carson, wrote two novels, wrote for periodicals, and wrote Hollywood television screenplays. He also wrote two non-fiction books. One on how to write a book and another about how to write articles for magazines. When I was 10, he edited and published a short story of mine. Since then I have written over 100 articles for international and national periodicals, as well as four minor professional publications. I was also the editor of a monthly professional newsletter for four years with a staff of two. Finally, the book itself is the product of my doctorate research into organizational psychology at Washington State University.
In order to categorize my book, I looked in the official Dictionary of Book Genres. Not finding the exact category that fit mine, I did notice that “some books are considered ‘crossover’ titles.” There are two categories that looked like mine. They are:
“Business Book Genre – Books in the business nonfiction genre are about the management and running of a business, or in the financial aspects of a business.”
“Psychology Genre – Books in the psychology nonfiction genre are about the applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental function and behaviors.”My book and my doctoral studies are about organizational psychology. More specifically it is about organizational change management or OCM. The book is a kind of “step-by-step instructions” that an organization would need to know to manage change. Another astonishing fact about my book is that I own both the copyright, the trademark, and the Internet domain to the title the Book of Change. The other well-known title is the I Ching (周易) or Book of Changes which was written around the 9th Century B.C. in China. I have also trademarked the change management process PSOCM or People Sustained Organizational Change Management that the book is about.
So, what is so interesting about my book? To begin with, my book is the first and only doctorate level, systematic literature review, and meta-analysis of the seven decades of both the historical and the contemporary change management models. I focused my review on 16 different organizational change management, also known as OCM, processes published since Curt Lewin created the field in 1951.
As an academic, I spent my doctoral research reading every publication, periodical, and research paper on this subject so that you, the reader, don’t have to. And will tell you that much of what I read wasn’t worth reading.As a 40-year practitioner and consultant, I can tell you that what the reader needs is a model that they can actually use without a paid interpreter or a divining rod.
Marketability. This book is marketable because it creates what psychologists call “cognitive closure.” In this age of fear of the unknown, what we want are answers. It is an individuals’ desire for a firm answer to a question and an aversion toward ambiguity, a drive for certainty in the face of a less than certain world. The books’ challenge to the reader is “Either you manage change or change manages you!”
(1) How about comparables? Let’s consider The Black Swan (2007) by Nassim Nicholas Taleb. The book spent 36 weeks on the New York Times Best Seller List. I corresponded with Nassim to see if he is interested in my book conceptually because they have a lot in common. Both are about global change. Nassim’s book sold during the Great Recession. My book will sell during the Great Pandemic (CONVID-14). It’s a classic case of “When life gives you lemons, make lemonade.”
(2) As mentioned, my book is the first and only doctorate level, systematic literature review, and meta-analysis of the seven decades of both the historical and the contemporary change management models. I focused my review on 16 different organizational change management (OCM) processes published since Curt Lewin created the field in 1951. As an academic, I spent my doctoral research reading every publication, periodical, and research paper on this subject so that you, the reader, don’t have to. And will tell you that much of what I read wasn’t worth reading.
(3) As a 40-year practitioner and consultant, I can tell you that what you need is a model that you can actually use without an interpreter or a divining rod. Having a sequenced bubble diagram with amazing metaphors won’t help you manage your changing organization.
The result of this doctorate research is People Sustained Organizational Change Management or PSOCM. This is a Three Phase, 10-Step, 33 Actions model, and is the most comprehensive change management models available today. It presents the first complete life-cycle series of steps that can be utilized in total, in phases or as discrete actions.
Trademark. I own the trademark to the title. This is pretty amazing considering the only other title like it is the Book of Changes also known as the I Ching (circa 1000–750 BC). I have also trademarked the change management process that the book is about. That is called People Sustained Organizational Change Management (PSOCM®).
Internet Platform. The Book of Change comes with an established Internet platform. I own the domain www.bookofchange.online. I launched the website back in 2018. The site currently has dozens of pages and is designed to mirror the book itself. Each page is a separate website on its own. I did did so that people accessing the material can’t just download it like they could if it was an e-book or massive .pdf. The site is hosted by Wix which is the premier hosting entity. This means the functionalities are incredible. The land page alone shifts the image to underscore the change aspect. I currently market the site through Google AdWords. I use a minimal dollar amount until I sell the book.
Training Program. Yes, PSCOM® is quite a mouthful. But the leading competitor in the change management industry is Prosci® who sells their ADKAR® process. That stands for Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability, Reinforcement. These folks have as many books and training programs as Scientology. Their three-day starter program is $4,400. My 10-Step program is an online, open-source process. It’s free for now. However, the training aspect is important because I can market PSCOM® as an economical Prosci® alternative. The training means there are important training and software downstream possibilities that will reinforce long-term book sales. One of the more unique and even enduring aspects of the book is its street-level appeal in terms of explaining what needs to be done. For example, this is from Step 4.5:
In the cult classic movie Crocodile Dundee, the lead character talks about going on a “walkabout.” A walkabout is an Australian down under the term “a journey on foot undertaken by an Australian Aboriginal in order to live in the traditional manner” (Oxford Languages). So, you need to spend some time behind the counter, in the office and in the field working with staff to get a sense of the people of the place and its culture.
Google Ad Campaign. I currently have an online Internet campaign for the book’s website (Book of Change) with Google Ads. The ad's slogan is “Either You Manage Change or Change Manages You.” That is the message I also use in the Book of Change.The site has been evolving since June 2018 or just over 2 years. It has been shown with a total of 858,900,000 impressions with 16,400 clicks over 23.5 months. That’s 22 visitors a day. Keep in mind that I am only paying $100/month to generate this much traffic. So, the click rate is 1.90% which is on target with the average expected rate of 1.91% for a new website (according to Google). For comparison purposes, technology ads run at about a 2.09%.
I only mention this to demonstrate that the attraction of this topic is on par with the average Google Ad campaign. The amount of traffic and click being a function of money, I would reinvest any publishing advance back into the monthly Google Ad campaign. I would plan on increase my ad campaign to at least $1,000/month for one year. That would produce and an annualized click rate of 83,745.
The average click to sale rate is roughly 150:1. So a $1,000/month sales campaign would result in 558 books sold annually. Now remember this is based on my expenditure only and not the publishers.
Interested? This is not the real book proposal. It is merely a few excerpts.
If you want the full proposal,then contact me at email@example.com
The Book of Change website was launched in January 2018 and in my essay titled “The Nature of Change” I predicted 14 types of global change events. The first of those was “Human diseases (Pandemic – AIDS, Ebola, Zika, H1N1, SARS).” I started the essay by asking, “What is the ‘Next Big Thing?’ What causes it? How can you anticipate it?” And, I explained that “Your very survival depends on you anticipating change.” And I was right. I created this online publication to help you be prepared for the “Next Big Thing.” I will tell right now that COVID-19 is just the beginning of what I call the “cultural pandemics.” The world as you and I know it is going to change so dramatically that it will make the days of World War II and the 1960’s pale in comparison! My admonishment to you is simple. Either you manage change or change manages you! So, if you are smart enough and brave enough, then join me on the adventure. I will take a phrase from Shakespeare’s Macbeth,
I throw my warlike shield. Lay on Macduff,
And damn’d be him that first cries, ‘Hold enough!’
The change we face is as exponential, as it is existential. How many predicted the Twin Towers attack on 9/11, the Great Recession, the Presidency of Donald Trump, the European Brexit, or the COVID-19? Not since the tumultuous years of World War II rationing has the world be in such turmoil and forced change. Today’s changes are nothing short of a cultural pandemic. In medical terms, a pandemic is an epidemic of infectious disease that spreads across a large region, multiple continents, or even worldwide. But a disease is curable. Either you cure it, or it kills you. Humanity has faced these many times from the Black Death to the COVID-19. But a cultural pandemic is not curable. A cultural pandemic is immutable. In other words, it changes you, you don’t change it.
I use the word immutable for a very good reason. What we are facing is nothing short of immutable change. Immutable means unchanging over time or unable to be changed. Ponder that. It is exactly what Heraclitus of Ephesus told us 2,500 years ago, "The only thing that is constant is change." There is the oxymoron for you - immutable change.
The Book of Change© is both a meta-analysis model and a resource publication where the reader can learn about the change management process. You can learn about the history, terminology, institutions and current thinking
regarding the topic. But much of the publication is built on the thinking of
others who have been or are contributing to the field. I must advise you beyond the academic analysis and conclusions presented here, I also occasionally debunk and criticize what I consider either misinformation or self-serving infomercials. The field of organizational change management can, at times, be a minefield of information created to sell books that are really vanity press pieces doled out to potential clients in order to sell consultant services or loss leaders for very expensive training programs at destination resorts. Mine are neither. All I am selling is an academically researched step-by-step approach to organizational change management.
A cultural pandemic is not curable. A cultural pandemic is immutable. In other words, it changes you, you don’t change it.
So, what is so interesting about this book and why should you read it?
Literature Review. To begin with, my book is the first and only doctorate level, systematic literature review, and meta-analysis of the seven decades of both the historical and the contemporary change management models. I focused my review on 17 different organizational change management (OCM) processes published since Curt Lewin created the field in 1951. As an academic, I spent my doctoral research reading every publication, periodical, and research paper on this subject so that you, the reader, don’t have to. And I will tell you that much of what I read wasn’t worth reading. I can’t stress the importance of my doing a longitudinal, doctorate level, literature review, and meta-analysis. I did this in three phases. Phase one was review 153 publications that I called the Polymatheia Project. That study was built on the original work of Dr. Peter Vail of George Washington University. In the end, I narrowed my focus down to three dozen publications. This was a literature scan of publications purported to be about organizational change management or organizational development. Phases two was a review of some three dozen selected books for what I call relevancy. In the third and final phase (see Appendix A), I identified 17 productive models to work with.
I cannot stress the importance of this foundational work. PSOCM® is a 3-Phase, 10-Step, 36 Action, comprehensive, life-cycle series, change management model based on a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the top 17 change management processes. The product of my academic literature review was the creation of PSOCM®. It presents the first complete life-cycle series of steps that can be utilized in total, in phases, or as discrete actions.
Literature Critiques. The field of organizational change management (OCM) has three kinds of publications:
On the one end, there are slim 100-150 page volumes published by a consultant. The purpose of the volume is to attract business. Such publications is self-serving and cursory. They present no research beyond mentioning a few historical figures like Kurt Lewin. Then they go on to sell you some homemade, new age claptrap that at times is almost embarrassing. One wonders that you didn’t get a magical gem to assist you in your metaphysical quest. Sadly, most of these books are given to potential clients to impress them.
On the other end of the spectrum, I found 500-600 page tomes meant to be sold to some poor masters or doctorate degree student at an absorbent price. These publications provide you with too much information (TMI). They all weigh over 2 pounds and come with a CD. One has pity on the poor student who must lug this door stops around campus. What both publications have in common is they present you with some quadrant box arrangement that supposedly explains the mystery of OCM. However, they universally don’t give you a definitive, utilitarian methodology to resolve the reader’s change management dilemma.
In between, you will find some more practical publications that are 300-500 pages and give you history, analysis, and methodology. Nassim Nicholas Taleb’s The Black Swan (2010) is one of these. That is why is spent 36 weeks on the New York Times bestsellers list. I have identified and rated these publications in the third and final analysis (see Appendix-A).
Literature Terminology. One of the more annoying aspects of my research was dealing with the constant creation of new terminology by authors who hope that people will start using their terms in the technology field and that will, in turn, create consulting work and training sessions. Consider the recent creation of words like scrum master, agile, and servant leader. A scrum master is simply a project manager or team leader. The phrase was trademarked by a guy who sells books. Consider that scrum is actually a Rugby term. Do you know anything about the game of Rugby? Let me give you Oscar Wilde’s view of the game, “Rugby is a good occasion for keeping thirty bullies far from the center of the city.” I don’t know about you, but this is not how you want your team described.
The real money in the field of change management is not just selling books, it is in selling consultant services and program training. One of the top change management programs charges $4,400 for their three-day seminar at a destination resort. That is a pittance compared to the $18.95 they sell their book for. Spoiler alert. My book comes with no expensive training at some expensive hotel complex. I will also strive to not introduce new terms into the field for personal gain.
The Nature of Change
I describe the nature of change in terms of quantitative impacts and qualitative events. The change impacts allow us to categorize and then measure the quantitative impact of change. In doing so we can then understand the cost-benefit of doing various alternatives versus doing nothing. We can also start to evaluate the performance efficiency of taking action to manage change. The change events allow us to categorize and evaluate the qualitative nature of the event of a change.
Change impacts. There are six types of change impacts on humanity. They are socio-cultural, technological, economic, political, pandemic, and environmental. I have created the acronym STEPPE for the. Each of these has subcategories where we can start the process of quantitatively establishing data points.
Socio-cultural (wars, gender, race)
Technological (artificial intelligence, technological advances, nuclear power, pharmaceutical, medical)
Economic (recession, depression, trade wars, monetary devaluations, economic systems)
Political (elections, coup de cox)
Pandemic (diseases such as COVID-19, AIDS, Ebola, Zika, H1N1, SARS)
Environmental (volcanic, tsunami, weather, flooding, earthquakes, climate change)
Change events. There are three kinds of change events for you to manage. I like to call them The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly. These names are taken from the 1966 cult-favorite spaghetti Western starring Clint Eastwood. These rather colorful euphemisms stand for what I more mundanely call the Predicted, the Predictable, and the Unpredictable. I came across these three concepts after reading two very different authors, as part of my doctorate research, who independently came to the same conclusion. One is Nassim Nicholas Taleb, the author of The Black Swan, who gained fame by prophesizing and capitalizing from the financial Crisis of 2007. The other was Donald H. Rumsfeld, who was both the Secretary of State to President Ford and President Bush. With the latter, he played a central role in the invasion of Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). What fascinated me was that two men, from such different backgrounds, came to similar conclusions about the nature of change. Taleb would call them The White Swan, The Grey Swan, and The Black Swan. Rumsfeld would call them the Known-Known, the Known-Unknown, and the Unknown-Unknown. I hasten to add that while Taleb was lauded as a financial genius for uttering such phrases, Rumsfeld was derided as a political eccentric for saying the same thing. The difference is that one man made a lot of money in the process and the other lost public confidence in the process. As a doctorate researcher searching for some answers, I was amazed that they both agreed on the nature of change. What was even more amazing was they had similar ideas on how to manage it.
Causality. In physics and philosophy, there is the almost metaphysical concept of “causality” or what is known as “cause-effect.” So, one important aspect to keep in mind is that the type of change requires a specific organizational change management process. It is not only the outcome that matters. By this, I mean that the order is: change à process à outcome. It is a little like product development. The analogy is you have an idea for a product at the same time as a competitor. You develop a manufacturing process to deliver the product. So, it’s idea à manufacturing process à product. You both get to market at the same time as a similar product. The difference is the cost which was determined by the process. You win or lose in the marketplace based solely on process cost. It is the same with change management. How you manage change will determine how successful you are in the final outcome. The recent COVID-19 is a good example. The disease occurred in several American cities at the same time. However, the outcome or death rate varied greatly depending on the type of containment/testing/mask process put in place by each municipality (i.e., city, county, state). As you will see in the following chapters, there are numerous change management processes that have been developed in the post-World War II years. Many have been modeled after the basic Lewin process of 1951. Others have taken different paths. So, there is a lot of competition out there in the marketplace of ideas on how to handle your specific change problem.
Exponential Change Theory
It is a bit trite to think that the moment we live in is really so important to the entirety of humanity and civilization. Magazine articles scream that we are at an incredible “crossroads” or we are approaching a dangerous “turning point.” But if we step back from our moment in time, we will see that we are just a dot on the curve of exponential change. If it seems that events are happening faster, then it's because they are. There a number of theories that explain this. There is Moore’s Law, Kurzweil’s Accelerating Returns, and Singularity. All of them lead to a rather bleak possibility – human extinction. There is some unknown “turning point” where technological growth becomes
uncontrollable and irreversible in terms of the fate of humanity.
Quite simply we create our own extinction. This extinction foretold by futurists
like Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk need not be the pure
technology of artificial intelligence run amok (Sparks, 2020).
One of the ideas that I will posit and explore here
will be that change has two modalities.
There is a naturally occurring organic change and
there is an artificially induced change. Those the observation
of “Either you manage change or change manages you.” But more on that later.
As we have seen more of in recent years, change may not be technological.
It could also be biological. We could unleash a pandemic so virulent
and fast that humanity could be sent back to the Stone Age in a matter of days.
Either of these scenarios, technology or biological requires an emergency plan of epic proportions. For example, if there is an outbreak of a truly deadly virus, then we would have the foresight to ground all air travel. Would the world leaders in North America, Europe, and Asia have the hutzpah to pull up the drawbridge and stop the air travel disease carriers? Social distancing is greater than six feet. Pandemics are continental.
Moore’s Law. Gordon Moore, the co-founder of Intel, predicted the doubling every year in the number of components per integrated circuits. This became the accepted norm or “law” and was the driving force of technological and social change, productivity and economic growth in the later 20th Century (Takahishi, 2005).
Kurzweil Law of Accelerating Returns. Ray Kurzweil prediction of technological evolution was quite dire. He foresaw, “technological change so rapid and profound it represents a rupture in the fabric of human history” and that a technological singularity will over by 2045. The result will be the “merger of biological and nonbiological intelligence, immortal software-based humans, and ultra-high levels of intelligence that expand outward in the universe at the speed of light” (Kurzwiel, 2001).
Technological Singularity. Many of the great thinkers of our day are projecting the end of humanity at the hands (orbits) of artificial intelligence. The term for this is “singularity.” It was coined by John von Neuman and popularized by Vernor Vinge in his 1993 essay The Coming Technological Singularity (Vinge, 1993). In his writings he envisioned it happening by 2030. Both Stephen Hawkings and Elon Musk believe that AI could overtake us humans and result in human extinction (Sparkes, 2020). I think that the end of humanity via technology is overblown.
I think that we should be able to shepherd technology unless some morons unleash it in a Wuhan Laboratory. I am more concerned that the combination of AI and robotics will cause widespread unemployment. Humanity has transitioned from working 24/7 to Sundays off for Church to a 5-day workweek. Many companies in Europe are starting to move to a 4-day workweek. The coronavirus has made teleworking the “new normal.” I think that what may happen is an entirely new economy built on leisure time.
Misinterpreting the Nature of Change
Much of today’s “new age” millennialist change management literature is full of ideas meant to liberate employees in the belief that they will innovate and that will promote positive change. One publication noted that “Innovation is constrained by deep-rooted beliefs such as micromanaging people to increase performance and production.” So, I found it amazing to read the same publication turn around and lament that “trained business transformation consultants are often stumped when they work with companies that employ seemingly irrational behavior.” They see the challenge as a need for “mastering organizational social patterns” (Buler, 2018). I would suggest that the latter is called good old fashioned “management.” Instead of unleashing the human potential to do nothing or even meaningless activities, we should train people to think better.
There is a ubiquitous cartoon that has a light bulb going on over the character’s head. It is “Eureka” or the “Aha Moment.” When I see that cartoon, I always think about the man who created the light bulb. Thomas Edison had an idea. But then he did the painful hard work to try it and failed 1,000 times. That takes an enormous amount of discipline and belief in an idea.
There is always a problem when the theorist pendulum swings so far from center that it almost tips over. I would argue that the best way to address exponential change is not to pour gas on it. Indeed, it might be more rational to put the fire out before it burns the house down. “Burn baby burn” is a great Antifa chant, but it is not a productive business mantra.
I wrote this book, in part, out of my own personal and professional frustration with change management books. I spent 30 years as a manager/practitioner in organizations. I developed a profound interest in the subject of organizational change management (OCM). I then spent 10 years working for a company whose mission was performance auditing. I started my academic quest to build on that consulting experience and came to realize that the key to improved performance was the need to make organizational changes. This should not be an amazing realization. But when I talked to the owner of the consulting company about the need to help companies with organizational change management, I could not convince him of its importance. Luckily, that led me to branch out on my own an create Carson & Associates.
I had a similar problem with my doctorate research into the subject. If you Google the words “change management” it says “About 4,610,000,000 results (0.53 seconds).” A search on Amazon narrows is down to a little over 400. My academic literature review narrowed that down further, but the results were disheartening. As a practicing consultant, I found little really useful information. Most of the literature was theoretical at best. They read like metaphysical self-help books. The work of organizational change management is not a metaphysical exercise where one needs to channel the spirit of Kurt Lewin with a chakra stone.
My doctorate focus was in organizational psychology where one can treat the organization the same as a very neurotic, dysfunctional person. It is not productive to put the organization on the couch and ask, “Well, what do you think?” Organizations, like people, come seeking answers and direction, and not internal revelatory questions.
As a consultant, I was always called in when it had becoming painfully obvious that the organization, or one of its units, was dysfunctional. And since organizations consist of people, it was the people who were the problem.
My interest is in organizational psychology and not the psychology of the individual. I can tell you that as a practicing consultant, I come across two types of organizational problems. One is when an organization needs to change to become more productive. You can do this without having a problem. We can always improve and be more productive, more creative, or more cost-efficient. However, I often find that an organizational problem is rooted in one dysfunctional person or one group. And the answer might be to eliminate that person or persons from the organization. Some would argue that it would be possible to retrain such people. But is my experience that you can change a process, but you can’t change a person’s underlying psychology.
I have created a Glossary section to help the reader understand the unique lexicon of organizational change management (OCM). However, there are a few terms that are fundamental to understanding the change management process. First and foremost is understanding the word organization. Before we can change something, we must understand what that something is. A common conceptualization is that organizations are social structures created by individuals to support the collaborative pursuit of specified goals (Handel, 2003).
The leading theorist in the field is W. Richard Scott who gives us three perspectives.
These are of the Rational System, Natural System and the Open System.
< >Rational System. Organizations are collectives oriented to the pursuit of relatively specific goals and exhibiting relatively highly formalized social structures.Natural System. Organizations are collectives whose participants share a common interest in the survival of the system and who engage in collective activities, informally structured, to secure this end.Open System. Organizations are systems of interdependent activities linking shifting conditions of participants: the systems are embedded in—dependent on continuing exchanges with and constituted by – the environments in which they operate.the social psychological, which emphasizes the interaction of individuals and groups with organizations and examines the impacts of organizational characteristics on processes.the structural, which attempts to examine and account for variations in the patterned structural features of organizationsthe ecological which views the organization as an actor or a component in some more comprehensive system of relationships (Scott, 1992).
My doctorate studies were in organizational psychology. The fundamental building block of the organization is the individual. As noted in Handel’s description, an organizational is a social structure created by and for individuals. And from the beginning of humanity's origins, people worked together to meet the basic physiological and safety requirements of Maslow's Hierarchy. They worked together to hunt for food, to create shelter against the environment, and to defend the tribe against existential threats.
To understand human behavior and his or her needs, we turn to Abraham Maslow who in 1943 published "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review (Wikepedia).
Since organizations consist of groups of individuals, it makes sense the organizations also progress through similar stages. There is an entire sub-field called organizational behavior that I will touch on throughout our OCM journey. “Organizational behavior (OB) is a field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations” (Colquitt, 1992).
The individual as organization is more than a metaphor. When we get to Step 5.0 Preliminary Diagnosis, you will see that the diagnosis of an organization mirrors that of the individuals. Indeed, one of the fundamental issues within organizations is the constant need for couples therapy. For example, in the private-sector it might be the Chair of the Board of Directors being in conflict with the CEO/President or in the public-sector it might be the City Mayor and the City Manager.
PSOCM® is a 3-Phase, 10-Step, 36 Action comprehensive, life-cycle series,
change management model based on a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of the top 17 change management processes.
Carson’s Theorem: The Half Life of Technology. I will peg the starting point of the growth in human technology to Gutenberg’s Bible and the use of movable type. However, my graph is the inverse of the accelerating growth. I am worried that we are dealing with an exponential deceleration where the speed of bio/technological change reaches a terminus for humanity as we know it.
I use the metaphor of the half-life of radioactive decay. Radioactive decay is the time it takes to exponentially terminate the radioactivity. For example, the half-life of uranium is 4.5 billion years. Carbon is 5,730 years and Plutonium is 5 hours. It is worth noting the radiocarbon dating is how we determine the age of inanimate objects.
Am I projecting the extinction of the human race? Without a doubt. Quite frankly, we could end up a moving beyond the Borg and download our thoughts into a machine. The idea of the humanoid robot can be dated by to Leonardo da Vinci’s Automaton knight of 1495. It is worth noting the first Gutenberg Bible is dated to 1454. And the New World is dated to 1492.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs is used to study how humans intrinsically partake in behavioral motivation. Maslow used the terms "physiological", "safety", "belonging and love", "social needs" or "esteem", and "self-actualization" to describe the pattern through which human motivations generally move. This means that in order for motivation to arise at the next stage, each stage must be satisfied within the individual themselves. Additionally, this theory is a main base in knowing how effort and motivation are correlated when discussing human behavior. Each of these individual levels contains a certain amount of internal sensation that must be met in order for an individual to complete their hierarchy. The goal in Maslow's theory is to attain the fifth level or stage: self-actualization.