Researched Models: A Meta-Analysis
Before I could undertake the comparative analysis of the types of organizational change management (OCM) models currently in existence, I needed to come up with an analytical framework and a common understanding of what I was talking about. One of the first things I realized, when I looked at the couple dozen organizational change management type models that I found during the literature review, was that I was dealing with apples and oranges.My mission in developing an OCM model was to develop a process model that would provide the practitioner, consultant, or academic researcher with a rational, sequential methodology that could be utilized and replicated in order to manage and produce organizational change.
However, the various OCM models that I found were developed and presented for differing purposes.
Stay tuned! What I will be presenting are the results of a meta-analysis of all of the main stream organizational change management models in a form you can use to pick and choose. If you are familiar with the world of political polling, then I am talking about the equivalent of RealClearPolitics which was the first political poll aggregator. What I have been building, based on my doctoral research at Washington State University, is a comprehensive, life-cycle organizational change management model. I have trademark it as PSOCM or People Sustained Organizational Change Management. The Contents page is designed to provide more detail of the systematic three phases and 10 steps of the model.
What’s a Model?
To begin with there is the basic question of what is a model. In general, all models have an information input, an information processor, and an output of expected results. The Business Dictionary says that a model is used to: “(1) to facilitate understanding by eliminating unnecessary components, (2) to aid in decision making by simulating 'what if' scenarios, (3) to explain, control, and predict events on the basis of past observations.” Models can be either scientifically quantitative or conceptually qualitative. The models used in organizational change management are generally either concept or categorical models.
A concept model is a generalized representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents [Wikipedia]. So it is used to explain what something is about and why it functions. For example, the Bridges’ Transition Model consists of three phases: ending, losing, and letting go. Lewin’s Model of Change is similar and is freeze, movement, and refreeze. A categorical model describes components of a model in contrast to the process itself. The latter is really what happens and are descriptive, prescriptive, and explanatory. The McKinsey 7-S Model is an example of this with categories such as strategy, structure, systems, shared values, style, staff, and skills. Another example is the Prosci (ADKAR) categories of awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, and reinforcement. A process model is what I was seeking. It is a further refinement of the first two. One aspect of this is the business process model (BPM). In business process management and systems engineering, this is the activity of representing processes of an enterprise, so that the current process may be analyzed and improved [Wikipedia]. So the process model is used to describe how something functions and not why. As a consultant, I provide my clients with a systematic set of steps that are actionable, programmable, accountable, and measurable. In other words, I tell them what needs to be done, by who, when it should be accomplished and how they can be sure it was successful. One of the more valuable aspects of the process model is that of process mapping. Process mapping is a before and after exercise. The before part is when you sit down with the client and ask their staff to map out what they do from beginning to end. You can't fix something until you can explain what that something is. The first thing that becomes evident is that the staff won't agree on what the current process is. The discussion always results in a comment like "That isn't the way I do it!" Red flag number one is that there isn't consistency in the process. The after part is to create a process map of the new program that everyone agrees to! Again, you want consistency in the process actions. The process map also allows for documentation of the process. You can't expect consistency unless you document what is to be done. But more on this later.
Change Management Models
Here are 16 types of change management models identified and researched as part of my literature review:
1982 McKinsey 7-S Model
1996 Prosci ADKAR
2008 Nudge Theory
2018 People Sustained Organizational Change Management (PSOCM)
• Define the implementation
• Generate sponsorship
• Build change agent capability
• Develop target readiness
• Develop Reinforcement Strategy
Beckhard and Harris Change Management Process
1. Internal Organizational Analysis
2. Identifying the need for change
3. Conducting a gap
4. Action planning
5. Managing the Transition
Bridges’ Transition Model
• Letting go
Create constancy of purpose for improvement of product and service.
Adopt the new philosophy
Cease dependence on mass inspection
End the practice of awarding business on price tag alone
Improve constantly and forever the system of production and service
Institute training and retraining
Drive out fear
Break down barriers between staff areas
Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the workforce
Eliminate numerical quotas
Remove barriers to pride of workmanship
Institute a vigorous program of education and retraining
Take action to accomplish the transformation
1. Create a Sense of Urgency
2. Build a Guiding Coalition
3. Form a Strategic Vision and Initiatives
4. Enlist a Volunteer Army
5. Enable Action by Removing Barriers
6. Generate Short-Term Wins
7. Sustain Acceleration
8. Institute Change
Leading Change (2012)
1. Establishing a sense of urgency
2. Creating the guiding coalition
3. Developing a vision and strategy
4. Communicating the change vision
5. Empowering broad-based action
6. Generating short-term wins
7. Consolidating gains and producing more change
8. Anchoring new approaches in the culture
Kubler-Ross’ Change Curve
Lewin’s Change Management Model (1951)
• Unfreeze your process and perceptions
- Increase driving forces directing behavior away from the existing situation/status quo
- Decrease restraining forces that negatively affect the situation/status quo
- Find a combination of the two methods.
- Motivate participants by preparing them for change, build trust and recognition for the need to change, actively participate in recognizing problems and brainstorming solutions with the group
• Movement. Make your changes in behavior
- Persuade employees to agree that the status quo is not beneficial and encourage them
to view the problem from a fresh perspective
- Work together for a change of new, relevant information
- Connect views of the group of well-respected, the leader that support change
• Refreeze the new status quo. Stabilize new equilibrium of change by balancing both the driving and restraining forces.
Lippit Phases of Change Theory (1958)
1. Diagnose the problem
2. Asses the motivation and capacity for change
3. Assess the resources and motivation of the change agent. Includes change agent’s commitment to change, power, and stamina.
4. Choose progressive change objects. In this step, action plans are developed and strategies are established.
5. The role of the change agents should be selected and clearly understood by all parties so that expectations are clear. Examples: cheerleader, facilitator, expert
6. Maintain the change. Communication, feedback, and group coordination are essential elements in this step of the change process.
7. Gradually terminate from the helping relationship. The change agent should gradually withdraw from their role over time. This will occur when the change becomes part of the organizational culture.
McKinsey 7-S Model
• Shared values
• Clearly define your changes
• Consider changes from your employees’ point of view
• Use evidence to show the best option
• Present the change as a choice
• Listen to feedback
• Limit obstacles
• Keep the momentum up with short-term wins
Prochaska and DiClemente’s Transtheoretical Theory (1977)
1. Precontemplation (unaware or fails to acknowledge problem)
2. Contemplation (consciousness of issue)
3. Preparation (ready for change behavior and plans)
4. Action (increased coping behavior, engage in change activities)
5. Maintenance (actions are taken to reinforce change and establish new behavioral change to lifestyle and norms).
1. First Steps
2. Program Kick-Off
3. Data Collection/Assessment/Analysis
4. Stakeholder Feedback
5. Preliminary Diagnosis
6. Planning Change/Designing Interventions
7. Implementing Change/Action
8. Restructuring Organization/Managing Change
9. Institutionalize Change
Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior
1. Individual performance of a given behavior is primarily determined by a person’s intention to perform that behavior.
2. An individual’s attitude towards the desired behavior must be positive for change to occur.
3. The individual’s social environment influences the change in behavior (i.e., belief of peers about what the individual should do and the individual’s motivation to comply with that).
4. Perceived control over opportunities, resources, and skills needed to make the change in behavior.
Satir Change Management Model (1977)
• Late status quo
• New status quo
Social Cognitive Theory (1986)
• People learn from direct experience, human dialogue, and interaction, and observation.
• Behavior change is from environmental influences, personal factors, and attributes of behavior itself.
• Behavior is a result of the consequences. People react to how they perceive the consequences of their behavior (positive outweigh negative).
• Three methods to increase self-efficacy: provide clear instruction, provide the opportunity for skill development/training, and model ideal behavior they can relate to (neat, attractive, compelling, attention-grabbing, something they care about).
• Four processes to increase the likelihood of employee training success: attentional, retention, motor reproduction, and reinforcement.
• Changed behaviors get greater attention, better rewards, and performed more often.